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Starting with the camp at Mauthausen, the number of subcamps expanded over time and by the summer of Mauthausen and its subcamps had become one of the largest labour camp complexes in the German-controlled part of Europe. As at other Nazi concentration camps, the inmates at Mauthausen and its subcamps were forced to work as slave labour , under conditions that caused many deaths. Mauthausen and its subcamps included quarries, munitions factories, mines, arms factories and plants assembling Me fighter aircraft.
Mauthausen was one of the first massive concentration camp complexes in Nazi Germany, and the last to be liberated by the Allies. The two largest camps, Mauthausen and Gusen I, were classed as "Grade III" Stufe III concentration camps, which meant that they were intended to be the toughest camps for the "incorrigible political enemies of the Reich ". On 9 August , prisoners from Dachau concentration camp near Munich were sent to the town of Mauthausen in Austria , to begin the construction of a new slave labour camp.
The granite mined in the quarries had previously been used to pave the streets of Vienna, but the Nazi authorities envisioned a complete reconstruction of major German towns in accordance with plans of Albert Speer and other proponents of Nazi architecture ,  for which large quantities of granite were needed. Mauthausen initially served as a strictly-run prison camp for common criminals, prostitutes  and other categories of "Incorrigible Law Offenders".
The Gusen camps were three different concentration camps in the Perg district of Upper Austria:. The three Gusen concentration camps held a significant proportion of prisoners within the Mauthausen-Gusen complex, at times exceeding the number of prisoners at the Mauthausen main camp itself. In March I was brought to Mauthausen to build the Gusen camp. The building tempo had to be accelerated, because the " Aktion gegen die polnische Intelligenz " [arrest and murder of Polish intellectuals] was designated for the month of April.
They called the camp under construction Gusen "Vernichtungslager fur die polnische Intelligenz" [extermination camp for Polish intellectuals]". The numbers of inmates rose from 1, in late to over 3, a year later. The new camp later named Gusen I became operational in May The first inmates were put in the first two huts No. Like nearby Mauthausen, the Gusen camps also rented inmates out to various local businesses as slave labour. In October , several huts were separated from the Gusen subcamp by barbed wire and turned into a separate Prisoner of War Labour Camp German: The Gusen site was expanded to include the central depot of the SS, where various goods, which had been seized from occupied territories, were sorted and then dispatched to Germany.
In March , the former SS depot was converted to a new subcamp, named Gusen II , which served as an improvised concentration camp until the end of the war. Gusen II contained about 12, to 17, inmates, who were deprived of even the most basic facilities. Here, parts of a factory infrastructure were converted into the third Gusen camp.
From late to , the number of inmates per bed rose from two to four. As the production in Mauthausen and its subcamps was constantly increasing, so were the numbers of detainees and subcamps themselves. Although initially the camps of Gusen and Mauthausen mostly served the local quarries, from onwards they began to be included in the German war machine.
To accommodate the ever-growing number of slave workers, additional subcamps German: By the end of the war, the list included camps including 49 major subcamps  which covered most of modern Austria, from Mittersill south of Salzburg to Schwechat east of Vienna and from Passau on the pre-war Austro-German border to the Loibl Pass on the border with Yugoslavia. The subcamps were divided into several categories, depending on their main function: The production output of Mauthausen and its subcamps exceeded that of each of the five other large slave labour centres: Some parts of the quarries were converted into a Mauser machine pistol assembly plant.
In , an underground factory for the Steyr-Daimler-Puch company was built in Gusen. Altogether, 45 larger companies took part in making Mauthausen and its subcamps one of the most profitable concentration camps of Nazi Germany, with more than 11,, Reichsmark [note 3] in profits in alone EUR The companies using slave laborers from Mauthausen included: Prisoners were also rented out as slave labour to work on local farms, road construction, reinforcing and repairing the banks of the Danube , and the construction of large residential areas in Sankt Georgen  as well as being forced to excavate archaeological sites in Spielberg.
When the Allied strategic bombing campaign started to target the German war industry, German planners decided to move production to underground facilities that were impenetrable to enemy aerial bombardment. In Gusen I, the prisoners were ordered to build several large tunnels beneath the hills surrounding the camp code-named Kellerbau. In January , similar tunnels were also built beneath the village of Sankt Georgen by the inmates of Gusen II subcamp code-named Bergkristall.
In , the Me works was already finished and the Germans were able to assemble 1, planes a month. In January , a "panel of archaeologists, historians and other experts" ruled out the earlier claims of an Austrian filmmaker that a bunker underneath the camp was connected to the German nuclear weapon project. The political function of the camp continued in parallel with its economic role.
Until at least , it was used for the imprisonment and murder of the Nazi s political and ideological enemies, real and imagined. When inmates became totally exhausted after having worked in the quarries for 12 hours a day, or if they were too ill or too weak to work, they were transferred to the Revier "Krankenrevier", sick barrack or other places for extermination.
The growing number of prisoners made this system too expensive and from , Mauthausen was one of the few camps in the West to use a gas chamber on a regular basis. Until early , the largest group of inmates consisted of German, Austrian and Czechoslovak socialists , communists , homosexuals who were not Party members, anarchists and people of Romani origin.
Other groups of people to be persecuted solely on religious grounds were the Sectarians , as they were dubbed by the Nazi regime, meaning Bible Students , or as they are called today, Jehovah s Witnesses. The reason for their imprisonment was their rejection of giving the loyalty oath to Hitler and their refusal to participate in any kind of military service.
In early , many Poles were transferred to the Mauthausen—Gusen complex. The first groups were mostly composed of artists, scientists, Boy Scouts , teachers, and university professors,   who were arrested during Intelligenzaktion and the course of the AB Action. Later in the war, new arrivals were from every category of the "unwanted", but educated people and so-called political prisoners constituted the largest part of all inmates until the end of the war.
Most of them were former Republican soldiers or activists who had fled to France after Franco s victory and then were captured by German forces after the defeat of France in or handed over to the Germans by the Vichy authorities. The largest of these groups arrived at Gusen in January Most of them were kept in huts separated from the rest of the camp. The Soviet prisoners of war were a major part of the first groups to be gassed in the newly built gas chamber in early In , a large group of Hungarian and Dutch Jews, about 8, people altogether, was also transferred to the camp.
Much like all the other large groups of prisoners that were transferred to Mauthausen and its subcamps, most of them either died as a result of the hard labour and poor conditions, or were deliberately killed. After the Nazi invasion of Yugoslavia in April and the outbreak of the partisan resistance in summer of the same year, many people suspected of aiding the Yugoslav resistance were sent to the Mauthausen camp, mostly from areas under direct German occupation, namely northern Slovenia and Serbia.
An estimated 1, Slovenes died in Mauthausen. Throughout the years of World War II, the Mauthausen and its subcamps received new prisoners in smaller transports daily, mostly from other concentration camps in German-occupied Europe. Most of the prisoners at the subcamps of Mauthausen had been kept in a number of different detention sites before they arrived. The most notable of such centres for Mauthausen and its subcamps were the camps at Dachau and Auschwitz.
The first transports from Auschwitz arrived in February The second transport in June of that year was much larger and numbered some 1, prisoners. Finally, after Adolf Eichmann visited Mauthausen in May of that year, Mauthausen received the first group of roughly 8, Hungarian Jews from Auschwitz; the first group to be evacuated from that camp before the Soviet advance.
Initially, the groups evacuated from Auschwitz consisted of qualified workers for the ever-growing industry of Mauthausen and its subcamps, but as the evacuation proceeded other categories of people were also transported to Mauthausen, Gusen, Vienna or Melk. Over time, Auschwitz had to almost stop accepting new prisoners and most were directed to Mauthausen instead. Prisoner transports were considered less important than other important services, and could be kept on sidings for days as other trains passed.
Many of those who survived the journey died before they could be registered, whilst others were given the camp numbers of prisoners who had already been killed. Zeltlager just outside the Mauthausen subcamp, where roughly 2, people were forced into tents intended for not more than inmates, and then starved to death. As in all other German concentration camps , not all the prisoners were equal.
Their treatment depended largely on the category assigned to each inmate , as well as their nationality and rank within the system. The so-called kapos , or prisoners who had been recruited by their captors to police their fellow prisoners, were given more food and higher pay in the form of concentration camp coupons which could be exchanged for cigarettes in the canteen, as well as a separate room inside most barracks.
Prominenz , or prisoners who were given a much better treatment than the average inmate. Although the Mauthausen camp complex was mostly a labour camp for men, a women s camp was opened in Mauthausen, in September , with the first transport of female prisoners from Auschwitz. Along with the female prisoners came some female guards; twenty are known to have served in the Mauthausen camp, and sixty in the whole camp complex.
Female guards also staffed the Mauthausen subcamps at Hirtenberg , Lenzing the main women s subcamp in Austria , and Sankt Lambrecht. Almost all the female Overseers who served in Mauthausen were recruited from Austrian cities and towns between September and November In early April , at least 2, more female prisoners came from the female subcamps at Amstetten , St. The available Mauthausen inmate statistics  from the spring of , shows that there were 2, prisoners below the age of 20, which was By late March , the number of juvenile prisoners in Mauthausen increased to 15,, which was The number of imprisoned children increased 6.
These numbers reflected the increasing use of Polish, Czech, Russian, and Balkan teenagers as slave labour as the war continued. There were also 23 Romani children, 20 so-called "anti-social elements", six Spaniards, and three Jehovah s Witnesses. Mauthausen was not the only concentration camp where the German authorities implemented their extermination through labour Vernichtung durch Arbeit programme, but the regime at Mauthausen was one of the most brutal and severe. The conditions within the camp were considered exceptionally hard to bear, even by concentration camp standards.
The reasons for sending them to work in the "punishment detail" were trivial, and included such "crimes" as not saluting a German passing by. Despite the fact that roughly medics from among the inmates were working there,  they were not given any medication and could offer only basic first aid. The rock quarry in Mauthausen was at the base of the "Stairs of Death".
As a result, many exhausted prisoners collapsed in front of the other prisoners in the line, and then fell on top of the other prisoners, creating a domino effect ; the first prisoner falling onto the next, and so on, all the way down the stairs. Such brutality was not accidental. The SS guards would often force prisoners — exhausted from hours of hard labour without sufficient food and water — to race up the stairs carrying blocks of stone.
Those who survived the ordeal would often be placed in a line-up at the edge of a cliff known as "The Parachutists Wall" German: The Nazis also performed pseudo-scientific experiments on the prisoners. Heim was dubbed "Doctor Death" by the inmates; he was in Gusen for seven weeks, which was enough to carry out his experiments. After the war one of the survivors, Dr. While the food rations were increasingly limited every month, the heavy industry necessitated skilled specialists rather than unqualified workers and the brutality of the camp s SS and Kapos was limited.
This allowed many of them not only to evade the risk of starvation, but also to help other prisoners who had no relatives outside the camps — or who were not allowed to receive parcels. The Germans destroyed much of the camp s files and evidence and often gave newly arrived prisoners the camp numbers of those who had already been killed,  so the exact death toll of Mauthausen and its subcamps is impossible to calculate.
The matter is further complicated due to some of the inmates of Gusen being murdered in Mauthausen, and at least 3, were sent to Hartheim Castle, Also, several thousands were killed in mobile gas chambers, without any mention of the exact number of victims in the remaining files.
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Starting with the camp at Mauthausen, the number of subcamps expanded over time and by the summer of Mauthausen and its subcamps had become one of the largest labour camp complexes in the German-controlled part of Europe. As at other Nazi concentration camps, the inmates at Mauthausen and its subcamps were forced to work as slave labour , under conditions that caused many deaths. Mauthausen and its subcamps included quarries, munitions factories, mines, arms factories and plants assembling Me fighter aircraft. Mauthausen was one of the first massive concentration camp complexes in Nazi Germany, and the last to be liberated by the Allies. The two largest camps, Mauthausen and Gusen I, were classed as "Grade III" Stufe III concentration camps, which meant that they were intended to be the toughest camps for the "incorrigible political enemies of the Reich ". On 9 August , prisoners from Dachau concentration camp near Munich were sent to the town of Mauthausen in Austria , to begin the construction of a new slave labour camp. The granite mined in the quarries had previously been used to pave the streets of Vienna, but the Nazi authorities envisioned a complete reconstruction of major German towns in accordance with plans of Albert Speer and other proponents of Nazi architecture ,  for which large quantities of granite were needed.
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Mauthausen-Gusen concentration camp complex
The show focuses on a group of toddlers , most prominently Tommy , Chuckie , twins Phil and Lil , and Angelica , and their day-to-day lives, usually involving life experiences that become much greater adventures in the imaginations of the main characters. Production was initially halted in after 65 episodes spanning three seasons, with the last episode airing on May 22, From to , the only new episodes broadcast were " A Rugrats Passover " and " A Rugrats Chanukah ", two Jewish -themed episodes that received critical acclaim; during this time, after the end of the show s production run, Rugrats began to receive a boost in ratings and popularity due to constant reruns on Nickelodeon. In , Klasky Csupo Animation began producing new episodes, and the show s fourth season began in As a result of the show s popularity, a series of theatrical films were released over the next five years: The final TV episode aired on August 1, ,  bringing the series to a total of episodes over nine seasons. On July 21, , Nickelodeon broadcast the made-for-TV special " All Growed Up " to celebrate the 10th anniversary of the series premiere. The special was a pilot for the Rugrats spin-off series All Grown Up! Another spin-off series, Rugrats Pre-School Daze , aired on TV in but had only four episodes after Nickelodeon decided to focus on the first spin-off series.
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The below was provided to me to help facilitate my review. All opinions are my own and honest. I am disclosing this in accordance to FTC Guidelines. Check out this cute video about Dora Rocks, or the next one to see and hear some of the new songs from the CD. This would be an adorable Easter basket, a cute new Dora Rocks! Have fun, you and your child will have a blast singing, putting on shows, and making music together. Looks like a fun toy! Although I have a boy I bet he would love the idea of this toy loves music. We have a Ready For Potty Dora that my daughter loves.
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